The hostilities that have characterized relations between the Soviet and Western powers since 1917 gradually resurfaced at the end of the Second World War. This “East-West” division has been fuelled by conflicting political interests and ideologies. Conflicts erupted over peace agreements and reparations, and tensions were exacerbated by events such as the berlin blockade in April 1948, the June 1948 coup d`Ã©tat in Czechoslovakia and direct threats to the sovereignty of Norway, Greece and Turkey. The authors also discussed the invitation of Italy, Greece, Turkey, Portugal, Iceland and the Scandinavian countries, mainly because of their strategic value. Italy, Portugal and Iceland were founding members and, finally, Greece and Turkey joined the Alliance in 1952. Iceland joined Denmark and Norway, which were also founding members in 1949; Sweden, for its part, has categorically refused to have links with NATO because it has been heavily involved in neutrality. The foundations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were officially established on April 4, 1949 with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, commonly known as the Washington Treaty. On April 4, 1949, the 12 countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty at the Washington D.C. Auditorium Department, the city that gave the treaty its name. The treaty required each member to share the risk, responsibilities and benefits of collective defence – a concept that is at the heart of the Alliance. In 1949, the primary objective of the treaty was to create a mutual assistance pact to counter the risk that the Soviet Union would attempt to extend its control over Eastern Europe to other parts of the continent. In addition, the treaty required members not to make international commitments contrary to the treaty and committed them to the goals and principles set out in the UN Charter. It also noted that NATO members formed a unique community of values, committed to the principles of individual freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law.
The treaty was signed on April 4, 1949 in Washington, D.C. by a committee chaired by the American diplomat Theodore Achilles. Between March 22 and April 1, 1948, secret talks were held at the Pentagon, which Achilles said the North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty that forms the legal basis of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is implemented by it. The contract was signed on April 4, 1949 in Washington, D.C. The following twelve states signed the treaty and thus became founding members of NATO. The following heads of state and government signed the agreement as plenipotentiaries of their countries on April 4, 1949 in Washington, D.C: Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly in 1948. There were sharp differences of opinion on Germany`s post-war status, with the Americans insisting on the German takeover and possible rearmament, and the Soviets strongly opposing such actions. In June 1948, the Soviets blocked all ground travel in the American zone of occupation in West Berlin, and only a massive American airlift with food and other necessities supported the population of the area until the Soviets sank and blocked it in May 1949.