The agreement gives U.S. farmers additional access to foreign markets, particularly in Canada. It does not dismantle Canada`s “supply management system,” which imposes the amount of production on Canadian farmers so that they can be profitable. But Canada has agreed to abolish a program that helps sellers of certain dairy products in Switzerland and abroad and opens its market to milk, cream, butter, cheese and other U.S. products. In return, the United States expanded access to its market for the Canadian dairy and sugar industry. On June 1, 2020, the USTR Office issued the uniform rules which are the last hurdle before the implementation of the agreement on July 1, 2020. The Canada-U.S.-Mexico Trade Agreement (CUSMA), signed Wednesday by U.S. President Donald Trump, modernizes the 26-year-old North American Free Trade Agreement, which is held responsible for the erosion of the U.S. production sector. OTTAWA — The renegotiated North American Free Trade Agreement will enter into force on July 1, three years after talks began with the revision of the trilateral trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico. The revised agreement comes into force after a slight revision of the agreement at the end of 2019 to satisfy U.S.
Democrats and after it was ratified by the respective legislative bodies of the three countries. The agreement is a good thing for 16 years, but a mandatory “joint review” will be carried out within the first six years to determine whether the three countries wish to renew the agreement for a further 16 years. It maintains the six-month opt-out agreement that existed before. The terms of the USMCA remain in effect for a period of 16 years during which the parties may decide to review and/or renegotiate the terms or withdraw from the agreement. However, after six years, the duration of the sinking of the USMCA (16 years) may be revised and possibly extended if the parties believe that this would be beneficial. An April 2019 Analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that the agreement would increase U.S. real GDP by 0.35 percent if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification) and would increase total U.S. employment by 0.12% (176,000 jobs).   The analysis cited by another Congressional Research Service study showed that the agreement would not have a measurable effect on employment, wages or overall economic growth.  In the summer of 2019, Larry Kudlow, Trump`s chief economic adviser (the director of the National Economic Council at Trump White House), made unfounded statements about the likely economic impact of the agreement and overstated forecasts related to jobs and GDP growth.
 Negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, steel and aluminum tariffs, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.”  Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks.  The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.  The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).  On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate passed the revised treaty by 107-1 votes.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.  With the agreement about to enter into force, it is a retrospective of five key moments.